Li Shixiang was born in August 1958 in Beijing. He started his professional career in March 1978 and joined the Communist Party of China (CPC) in March 1982. He graduated from the Party School of the CPC Central Committee with a master's degree in senior political engineering. He is an alternate committee member of the 18th CPC Central Committee, member of the Standing Committee of the Beijing Municipal Party Committee, executive vice-mayor of Beijing, and deputy secretary of the Party Committee of Beijing Municipality.
In Beijing's Tongxian county, he served as a teacher in Caochang Middle School; deputy director of the organization department of the CPC Tongxian county committee; secretary of the Party committee in Chengguan town, Tongxian county; and county member of the standing committee.
In Beijing's Changping county, he served as deputy secretary of the county Party committee, deputy county magistrate, acting county magistrate, and county magistrate.
In Beijing's Chaoyang district, he served as deputy secretary of the Chaoyang district committee of the CPC; secretary of the Chaoyang district committee of the CPC; and deputy district chief, acting district chief and district chief of Chaoyang district.
He has also served as member of the Standing Committee of the Beijing Municipal Committee of the CPC, secretary general of the Bejing Municipal Committee of the CPC, director-general of the general office, and secretary of the Central Labour Committee of the Beijing Municipal Committee of the CPC.